The Nexus of Modernization and Jirga: Empirical Evidence Concerning the Impact of Media (Traditional/Online) on Jirga in Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan



Impact of Media, Modernization, Change in Jirga System, Swat, KPK


Aim of the Study: The Jirga system is considered as one of the most imperative features contributing toward the social structure of Pakhtun society. Like other facets of life, the Jirga system is also experiencing numerous impacts of modernity through education, media, urbanization, etc. The study was designed to explore perceptions of the different stakeholders regarding the impact of media on the Jirga system concerning modernization.

Methodology: To examine the phenomena the Survey methodology was used for the investigation. The quantitative data was obtained through a five-point Likert scale questionnaire from different sampled groups i.e. intellectuals, lawyers, politicians, community leaders, and literary persons. The data were analyzed through SPSS (version 21) software wherein agreement indices, univariate, and bivariate analyses were performed. For assessing the internal consistency of the scale, high-level reliability was illustrated through Cronbach's Alpha (α) i.e. 0.834. The association between independent and dependent variables was measured statistically through Chi-square (χ2) whereas the strength and direction were determined via Gamma (ℽ).

Findings & Conclusion: The overall findings manifest a highly significant (P=0.000) but a negative association between the importance of media about bringing understanding of the modern world and change in the Jirga system. Similarly, a significant but negative relationship was detected between the roles of social media in strengthening social networking across the world concerning the change in Jirga. Further, about change in the Jirga system, a significant but negative link was identified that media and specifically social media as an important source of adding new traits to indigenous culture. Subsequently, socio-cultural values are debilitated due to media (a means of modernization) was found highly significant with the level of change in Jirga.

Author Biographies

  • Dr. Imran, University of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

    Assistant Professor, Department of Social and Gender Studies, 

  • Dr. Zubair Ahmed, Karakorum International University, Gilgit Baltistan.

    Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, 

  • Fazal Qadar, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

    PhD Scholar, Department of Rural Sociology, 




How to Cite

Imran, Ahmed, Z. ., & Qadar, F. . (2023). The Nexus of Modernization and Jirga: Empirical Evidence Concerning the Impact of Media (Traditional/Online) on Jirga in Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Online Media and Society, 4(2), 78-88.